Friday, July 10, 2015

Beauty Glossary H-K

Hair loss
Hair is a growth consisting of dead skin cells that are filled with a protein called keratin. Hair originates in the dermis, the skin layer just below the surface layer (epidermis). Each hair is encased and nourished by a follicle buried under the skin.
“Androgenetic alopecia” commonly referred to as male or female pattern baldness.
Loss or absence of hair is a hereditary and unavoidable condition. Most hair loss is genetically inherited, some hair loss can be cause by stress, depression, a side effect of medication, a dietary, vitamin or mineral deficiencies or hormonal imbalance or various skin and other disorders. Hair loss affects men and women. Not all hair loss is inevitable, however, nor is the decline entirely controlled by genes.
Moreover, you're likely to lose hair faster if your hair follicles become inflamed or if you get skin disorders that affect your scalp. Things you put on your hair can clog up the follicles or even kill them in some instances. Go for a pure, natural, organic shampoo.
For those with sensitive hair or skin, hair loss prevention can start by choosing the right hair care products. Depending on the structure of your hair and hair follicles, certain shampoos and conditioners will help you maintaining healthy hair. You can also keep your hair from being damaged by wearing a hat when outside in the sun for long periods of time.
Baldness (Alopecia)
Baldness, or severe hair loss, is much more common in men than in women. Hair loss can result from genetic factors, aging, local skin conditions, dietary deficiency and systemic diseases that affect the body generally. Some medications, such as those used to treat cancer, also cause hair loss.
Male-pattern baldness is the most common type of hair loss affecting men. It's rare in women and children because it depends on the presence of male hormones (Androgens), and levels of these hormones are high in males after puberty. Hair loss is inherited. Hair loss usually begins on the sides, near the front, or on the top of the head toward the back. Hair loss can begin at any age, even in teenagers. Some people lose only some hair and develop a bald spot in the back or a receding hairline; others, especially people whose hair loss begins at a young age, may go completely bald.
Variations in a gene related to male sex hormones may be at the root of male-pattern baldness, the most common form of hair loss. The culprit is the androgen receptor gene, and it dwells on the X chromosome, which all men inherit from their mothers. Other, yet-unidentified genes are likely involved in male-pattern baldness, possibly including ones handed down by fathers. New findings highlight the importance of mom's side of the family when it comes to a man's hairline.
Female-pattern baldness is less common than male-pattern baldness. Usually, this condition causes the hair to thin in the front, on the sides, or on the crown. It rarely progresses to total hair loss.
Grey Hair
Hair goes grey when melanocytes become depleted. The scalp contains a reservoir of adult stem cells that provide a continuous supply of these color-making cells. But as the body ages these cells become depleted and sometimes begin to develop in the wrong part of the hair follicle.
* Hair loss tips
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) refers to the daily use of estrogen to increase a woman's hormones to premenopausal levels. Women with a uterus who take estrogen also need the hormone progestin to prevent the estrogen from affecting the uterine lining (endometrium), which can lead to endometrial cancer. The combination of estrogen and progestin is called hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Women with a uterus take HRT. Women who have had a hysterectomy to remove the uterus take ERT.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has updated its HRT recommendations and now only approves estrogen-progestin HRT for:    
* Short-term treatment of perimenopausal symptoms. Women who do decide that HRT benefits outweigh their risks are advised to use the lowest effective dose for as short a time as possible, not exceeding 3 or 4 years.  
* Osteoporosis prevention and treatment, in select, severe cases. Most experts recommend that HRT only be considered for women with significant risk of osteoporosis that outweighs their risks from taking HRT.
Women are now encouraged to consider all possible osteoporosis treatments and to compare their risks and benefits.
Hyaluronic acid (HA)
Hyaluronic acid is a natural polysaccharide which is as one important structural element in the skin and in subcutaneous and connective tissues. Hyaluronic acid is also found in the synovial tissue and fluid. Hyaluronic acid belongs to a group of very few subsances which are identical in all living organisms.
As Hyaluronic acid is a natural biotic component, widely existing in skin and any other tissue. Hyaluronic acid has been used in high grade skincare for its high plumping and moisturising effects. HA is called Natural Moisturing Factor (NMF).
Hydroxycitric acid (HCA)  
Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a natural substance that is extracted from the rind of the fruit of the Garcinia cambogia tree, and has been extensively studied for over thirty years and found to be effective in inhibiting lipogenesis, lowers the production of cholesterol & fatty acids, increases the production of glycogen in the liver, suppresses appetite, increases the body’s production of heat by activating the process of thermogenesis, and encourages weight-loss in laboratory animals. This acid is a natural compound that is similar to citric acid found in other citrus fruits. A decoction of the fruit rind is often given in support of rheumatism and bowel complaints. There have been numerous studies lately that determined possible uses of HCA for dieters or athletes. Research with animals has found that HCA enhances weight loss by curbing the animal's appetites naturally, and by modifying their metabolism so that they have less of a tendency to convert carbohydrates to fat. Other studies have found that HCA supplementation may decrease appetite and also inhibit the actions of a specific enzyme in the liver called ATP Cytrate Lyase. This enzyme is specifically responsible for the conversion of carbohydrates to fat. 
Intrauterine device (IUD)
IUD is a long-term birth control method.
IUD is a small, T-shaped plastic device that is wrapped in copper or contains hormones (progesterone). IUD prevent fertilization of the egg by damaging or killing sperm. A copper IUD may also be used as emergency contraception. The hormonal IUD must be replaced every 5 years. The copper IUD can remain in your body for as long as 10 years.
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