Friday, July 10, 2015

Beauty Glossary A-D

Antioxidants:Antioxidants are dietary substance that protect body cells from the damage caused by oxidation from free radicals (free oxygen radicals).  
Antioxidants neutralize free radicals by donating one of their own electrons, breaking the electron stealing chain reaction. The antioxidant themselves do not become free radicals by donating an electron because they are stable in either form. Antioxidants act like scavengers, preventing cell damage.  
Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA)
An active substance with exfoliating and emollient properties. These include lactic acid, derived from sour milk, citric acid, derived from citric fruit and glycolic acid, derived from sugar cane. Gylolic acid is the most alpha hydroxy acid used for skin peels. Unlike other chemical peels, alpha hydroxy acids are not toxic to the skin.
AHA has proven to be effective in treating acne, sun spots, removing dead skin cells, lessening fine wrinkles, and improving skin texture. Studies show that alpha hydroxy acids can reverse precancerous skin lesions, which are due to long term sun exposure. Alpha hydroxy acids can increase skin thickness up to 15% in patients with sun damaged thin skin. The process is through the stimulation of collagen synthesis.
Beta carotene
A precursor to vitamin A (retinol) found in egg yolk, milk, butter, spinach, carrots, squash, broccoli, tomato, cantaloupe, peaches, and grains. Beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A within the body.
Orange colored plant pigments, used in the manufacture of vitamin A. 
Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA)
Another name, Salicylic acid.
They are closely related to alpha hydroxy acids, in which the two functional groups are separated by one carbon atom. The difference between alpha hydroxy acids and beta hydroxy acid is their lipid (oil) solubility. Alpha hydroxy acids are water soluble, while beta hydroxy acid is lipid (oil) soluble. Meaning that beta hydroxy acid is able to penetrate into the pore which contains sebum and exfoliate the dead skin cells that are built up inside the pore. Because of this difference in properties, beta hydroxy acid is better used on oily skin with blackheads and whiteheads. Alpha hydroxy acids are better used on thickened, sun-damaged skin where breakouts are not a problem.
Beta hydroxy acid works mainly as an exfoliant. It causes the cells of the epidermis to become loosen allowing the dead skin cells to slough off, making room for regrowth of new skin.
BHA has proven to be effective in treating acne, mottled pigmentation of photodamaged skin,  removing dead skin cells and lessening fine wrinkles.
In treatment of acne, beta hydroxy acids are clearly superior to alpha hydroxy acids.
Beta hydroxy acid appears to be less irritating than alpha hydroxy acid even though it penetrates deeper into the pore. 
Botulinum toxin
Also called, Botulinum toxin type A
Popularly known by its trade name, Botox 
Botox is a drug made from a neurotoxic protein ( botulinum toxin) produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It's the same toxin in large doses that causes paralytic illness often linked to food poisoning. Despite its deadly toxic effect, doctors use it in very small doses to treat health problems, muscle spasms including temporary removal of facial wrinkles. 
Botox injections work by weakening or paralyzing certain muscles or by blocking certain nerves. The effects last about three to six months.
The most common side effect of Botox injections is temporary bruising, pain at the injection site. Other seen side effects include flu-like symptoms, headache and upset stomach. Injections in the face may also cause temporary drooping of the upper eyelids. (Blepharoptosis).
Botulinum toxin is now commonly used in various settings for cosmetic procedures.
Botox should not be used if you are pregnant or breast feeding. 
Butea superba:
Butea superba is an indigenous herb of Thailand, found in the forests of Thailand. It is known as “red kwao krua” or known as “phytoandrogen” (androgen male hormones derived from plants) by Scientists. Butea superba belongs to the Family Leguminosae, subfamily Papilioneae. Butea superba has been found to contain flavonoid and flavonoid glycoside, of which scientists found that these two substances from the herb have strong cAMP phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitory effect, which this enzyme is directly related to corpus cavernosal vasodilation. (Note: Corpus cavernosa  (corpora in plural) is major tissue of penis, responsible for the rigidity of the erect penis). To inhibit this enzyme will help promote vasodilation (blood flow) at the penis area. Thus, this effect results in stimulating aldosterone male hormones. Aldosterone male hormones are vital for blood circulation (vasodilatation) and new tissue generation, then resulting in improvement of Erectile Dysfunction, enlargement the sex organs, strengthen sex organ muscles and improve skin texture to promote youthful looks. Because of the effect of vasodilatation to increase blood circulation especially at sex organ, like mechanism of Viagra. Some people recognize Butea superba as “Natural Viagra”. It is interesting to note that from clinical trials in patients who had Erectile Dysfunction problems with additional health problems, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease and hyperthyroidism, they responded satisfactorily to Butea superba.
Chitosan is derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the shells of shrimp, lobster, crabs and other sea crustaceans, including Pandalus borealis. Chitosan is used widely in pharmaceuticals as a base in formulations. There is also extensive research showing chitosan can be effective in wound healing, as well as having antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.  
Chitosan is used in cosmetics for its properties of moisture-keeping, excellent membrane-forming and skin-protecting ability.
It is claimed that chitosan has the ability to remove fat from the body by acting as a fat sponge. It inhibits fat absorbtion thus help in weight loss. However , this claim needs  more scientific evidence.
Coffee enemas
Coffee enemas is a natural method used to detoxify human body. Coffee enema has greater benefits over saline enema (use water) due to the presence of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and other components that coffee contains. These substances in coffee help relax smooth muscles, which causes blood vessels and bile ducts to dilate.
The majority of medical practitioners recommend coffee enema as a good source of body detoxification.
The benefits of coffee enemas include the relief of headaches, nausea, pain and fatigue, and cleansing of the liver and colon.
Coffee stimulates the liver and facilities in removing toxic substances from our body.  Since coffee is a stimulant, it will go through hemorrhodial vein and reach your liver directly. When the liver is stimulated, the detoxification process will speed up. Toxins, wastes and other matters will come out from our small intestines with coffee. Coffee enema will also increase the duplication of red blood cells and reduce formation of gall stones.
Recent research has shown that coffee enema is an effective way for cancer treatment. The benefits of coffee enema is elimination of constipation, diarrhoea, loss of surplus weight, improved nutrient absorption throughout our digestive system and thereby reduction in the sensations related to bloating and irritability.
Collagen is a natural substance within body tissues. It can be injected into the skin to plump up particular areas.  Life is a string of complex molecules: polymers.  Nature's most abundant protein polymer is collagen.  More than 1/3 of the body's protein is collagen. 
    * Collagen makes up to 75% of our skin. 
    * Collagen controls cell shape and differentiation, migration, and the synthesis of a number of proteins.
    * When the body needs to build any new cellular structure as in the healing process,  collagen and/or collagen fragments will play a central role. 
Types of Collagen 
Collagen is found in the majority of organs, not just the skin. It occurs in different forms known as types. Hence, it is not enough to have the right amount of collagen in the right place - it has to be the collagen of the right type.  
Type I Collagen - The most abundant collagen in the body. Found in tendons, bones, skin and other tissues. Particularly abundant in the scar tissue.  
Types II, IX, X, XI - Cartilage    
Type III Collagen - Common in fast growing tissue, particularly at the early stages (Phase 1) of wound repair. Much of it is replaced later by the type stronger and tougher type I collagen.    
Type IV - Basal lamina (filtration membrane of capillaries)    
Type V, VI - Generally found alongside type I    
Type VII - Epithelia (lining of GI tract, urinary tract, etc.)    
Type VIII - Lining of blood vessels    
Type XII - Found alongside and interacts with types I and III 
The most abundant types of collagen in the skin are I and III; their fibrils form the mesh largely responsible for the skin's mechanical properties. Other types of collagen in the skin are V, VI, and XII. They are found in much smaller amounts and appear to have a supportive role, whose details remain unclear.
Commipheroline is an extract from the Guggul plant (Commiphora mukul), a myrrh plant found primarily in India. The gum of the Guggul plant has been used in India traditional Ayurvedic medicine since the 6th Century B.C. for promoting metabolism.
Commipheroline is a new trend in cosmetics technology for its super plumping effects. Commipheroline is capable of stimulating lipogenesis (fatty acid synthesis), resulting that triglycerides are formed, which deposit in the adipose cells (fat cells) of the skin. and the adipose cells are enlarged.
Therefore, Commipheroline is used in topical breasts products to enlarge adipose cells in breasts tissues. A subject study with women aged between 18 and 43 showed an increase in bust measurement by 2 cm on average after 6 weeks of daily application of Commipheroline.
And also as Commipheroline enlarge adipose cells and pad out the wrinkles from underneath, resulting that the skin becomes plumper, small wrinkles disappear and deeper wrinkles are reduced. Commipheroline is used in advanced skin care.
Curcuma comosa:
Curcuma comosa Roxb., a herb belonging to Zingiberaceae family. Curcuma comosa is is an indigenous herb of Thailand. Curcuma comosa is a special kind of herb which it has the most effects at female genital system especially vaginal wall muscles and uterus.  
Curcuma comosa has been used for centuries in traditional medicinal herbs for the treatment of female problems such as vaginal dryness, hot flashes, easing menstrual pain and cramping. It can be used to help women regain normal menstrual cycles after taking the herbs. It has proven helpful for relieving hot flashes during menopause. Curcuma comosa can reduce Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). And also help suppressed abdominal pain and chronic pelvic disorders. It enables the contractions of the uterus to be more orderly. Curcuma comosa increases the effect of ovarian/testicular hormones. The herb appears to have some estrogenic effect. In Thai herbal medicine, the herb has been used after childbirth to tighten firmly the uterus (womb) and vaginal muscles to its nonpregnant size. Curcuma comosa has been used to treat such conditions as dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), menorrhagia (abnormal menstruation, too much menstruation, menopausal symptoms (especially hot flashes).   
With a powerful effects in tightening and firming muscles, Curcuma comosa herb has been used widely in luxury spa to treat and mask on women breasts and overall body. Curcuma comosa herb can lift up saggy muscles and promote blood circulation at applied area incredibly. 
Detoxification or detox for short is the process of clearing (cleansing) toxic substances from the body or neutralizing or transforming them, and clearing excess mucus and congestion. Many of toxic substances are from our diet, drug use and environmental exposure. Internally, fats, especially oxidized fats and cholesterol, free radicals, and other irritating molecules act as toxins. Poor digestion, colon sluggishness and dysfunction, reduced liver function, and poor elimination through the kidneys, respiratory tract, and skin all add to increased toxicity.
Common diet that cause toxins in our body such as caffeine, red meat, refined white sugar, saturated fat and alcohol.
Dong Quai
Other names are danggui or danggwi (Korean) is a herb from the Apiaceae family. Its scientific name is Angelica sinensis. Dong Quai is a traditional Chinese herb used to treat menopausal symptoms and menstrual irregularity.
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